Zuhāl (زحل) was the Makkan goddess of the planet Saturn to whom the tribe of Banu Jurhum had gained control over the Kaaba by conquering the al-Amaliqah (Amalekites) tribe who ruled Makkah in ancient times. In other regions of Arabia, Zuhal was a male deity known as Nakruh or Kaywan, the latter of which was also worshiped by Chaldean (Kaywannu) and Hebrew tribes (Kiyyun). As one of the rulers of the world beneath the earth along with al-Merrikh/al-Muharriq, the planet Mars; Zuhal, the planet Saturn, was believed to have power over the cultivation and produce of the soil and was said to punish anyone who ruined even a small area of arable land: although along with Mars, she adores those who till the earth.

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